The main causes of visual impairment or blindness are
- (Age Related) Macular Degeneration
- Glaucoma and
- Diabetic Retinopathy.
Below we will describe the most common eye diseases and their symptoms:
Macular degeneration (MD) or Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a painless eye disease that causes loss in your central vision, while peripheral vision is not affected. There are two main types of AMD - the dry AMD and the wet AMD. Approx. 80% of the people are affected by the dry AMD. Macular degeneration is the most common cause of vision loss in people over the age of 55.
A major risk factor for glaucoma is an increased pressure in the eye. This results in a damage of the optic nerve and vision loss.
Diabetic Retinopathy is a complication of diabetes in which retinal blood vessels leaks into the retina, causing swelling. Typical symptoms are reduced light perception, an increased contrast sensitivity or partial scotoma.
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a severe enzyme defect, which narrows the field of vision from periphery to blindness. Initial signs are night blindness and partial scotoma. This is a progressive disease.